Iron often binds to phytic acid in the bran and germ layers of conventional rice grain, resulting in the formation of insoluble complexes that are not bioavailable in human diets. Here we report on the use of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) and high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to map the distribution of Fe, zinc (Zn), phosphorus (P) and other elements in conventional and biofortified rice. The results reveal large increases in the amounts of Fe and Zn in biofortified rice grain and detect novel “hotspots” of Fe in the subaleurone and endosperm layers.
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Kyriacou B, Moore KL, Paterson D, de Jonge MD, Howard DL, Stangoulis J, Tester M, Lombi E, Johnson AAT (2014) Localization of iron in rice grain using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy and high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry. Journal of Cereal Science 59: 173-180. PDF